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Африка

Форум за политики за развој на Самитот Африка во организација на Пријатели на Европа

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Андрис Пиебалгс-Андрис Пиебалгс, Брисел, јуни 24 2014

“Introduction: Africa today

За неколку децении, Африка излезе од сенките на колонијалното владеење, апартхејдот, осакатеноста на долгот и економската стагнација. Таа влезе во нова ера на невиден економски и демографски развој. Денес тоа е најдинамичните континент, се смета за светски раст "резервоар". Тој има голем број на средства кои ќе бидат од витално значење за неговата способност да се ослободи својот полн потенцијал. Дозволете ми да се потенцира само две.

“[1. Economic dynamism]

“First, there is growth. Between 2003 and 2011, while much of the world was stuck in recession, average GDP in Africa grew by 5.2 percent. In 2012, eight of the ten fastest-growing economies were African.

“[2. The youngest continent]

“Second, there is human capital. Africa has the fastest-growing population in the world – and the youngest, too. In 1900, Africa represented 7% of the world population; today it represents 16% and it is estimated that in 2100, it will represent 38%. Between 2010 and 2015, Africa’s working age population will more than double. And by 2050, a quarter of the world’s working age population will be African.

Маркетинг

“Challenges ahead (pitfalls)

“You will agree, then, that in many respects Africa’s progress has been astounding. And with much of its potential still untapped, the path ahead looks promising. However, there will be many pitfalls to avoid along the way. For Africa is also a continent of contrasts. A number of huge challenges still prevent it from fully exploiting its potential.

“First, governance is still an issue. The 2013 Mo Ibrahim index showed that while most African countries had experienced widespread human development and improved economic opportunities since 2000, average scores in the safety and rule of law category had declined sharply.

“Second, violent conflict and the threat of extremism continue to dog the continent. The conflicts in Central African Republic, Mali, South Sudan and Somalia in particular have grabbed headlines worldwide.

“Third, famines, pandemics and climate change impacts are an ever-present danger.

“And fourth, solid economic performance still hides huge inequalities, which may prove destabilising. In sub-Saharan Africa the number of people living on less than 1.25 dollars a day has fallen from 56 to 41 per cent. And yet this is the only region where the number of people living in extreme poverty has risen steadily – from 290 million in 1990 to 414 million in 2010. In all, more than a third of the world’s poor live in sub-Saharan Africa.

“In short, today is the time to finally unleash Africa’s huge and unrivalled potential. And I am very confident that this can be done. In recent years I have noticed strong willingness among African leaders and citizens alike to change the perception of Africa. They want Africa to become a continent of opportunity and success rather than a land of starving children and poverty. They want former and unjustified stereotypes to disappear once for all. In this regard, the African Union’s long-term strategy, Agenda 2063, sets out a vision and a plan to make full use of Africa’s potential to give its people a brighter future.

“More than ever, Africa is taking its destiny in its own hands while Europe is ready to remain Africa’s steadfast and reliable partner to make its vision a reality.

“EU-Africa: a privileged partnership

“The EU-Africa Summit which took place in last April demonstrated once again the privileged relationship both continents have The EU is Africa’s main development partner. It is its biggest trading partner and its top investor.

“Despite the economic crisis, in 2012 the EU as a whole committed 18.5 billion euro, or 45 per cent of global aid, to Africa. Between now and 2020, the Commission alone will provide more than 28 billion euro in development assistance for Africa.

“Aid really does work, ladies and gentlemen.

“Thanks to EU development assistance, since 2004 around 14 million new pupils have enrolled in primary education and more than 70 million people have been connected to improved drinking water worldwide. Over the same period, the EU has helped construct or renovate more than 8,500 health facilities worldwide. Between 2007 and 2012, the EU helped provide access to electricity to over 600 thousand households in Africa, with around 80 thousand jobs being created in the energy sector.

“These great results have been possible because donors and partner countries have worked together to achieve them. And yet, with the MDG deadline only some 500 days away, much remains to be done. Progress has been uneven and most sub-Saharan countries are still lagging behind. We must all redouble our efforts to finish the unfinished work and put Africa on the road to inclusive and sustainable growth for good.

Инклузивен и одржлив развој на стратегија за сузбивање и сиромаштија преку агендата за промени

“The enormous changes in many African and developing countries, and a belief that we could and should get even better poverty eradication results from our development funds were some of the factors in my decision to carry out a fundamental reform of EU development policy to make it even more focused and effective.

“With the Agenda for Change the EU has set up a strategy that goes beyond the symptoms to tackle the very root causes of poverty. It is based on three principles: targeting our funds to those countries most in need; concentrating funds on a limited number of strategic sectors where we can have the greatest impact; and placing special emphasis on results.

“Over the past three years, we have put these principles in action.

диференцијација

“In today’s world, we can’t cooperate with China, India or Brazil as we do with Senegal, Somalia or Bangladesh. In the negotiations on the multiannual financial framework to set the European Union’s budget from 2014 to 2020 we succeeded in maintaining high levels of aid. Our aid budget, amounting to 50.1 billion euro, will be mostly targeted towards the poorest countries where our aid really has an added value. Indeed, 70 per cent of EU bilateral cooperation will be allocated to Least Developed Countries and other low-income countries. With 24 of the 25 poorest countries in 2013 located in Africa, the continent will be our major partner.

Концентрација на помош

“The focus of our support will be directed to the три критични сектори за развој идентификуван од страна на агендата за промени. Тие се, прво, човековите права, демократијата и други клучни елементи на добро владеење; Второ, драјвери за инклузивен и одржлив развој - особено во земјоделството и енергијата; и трето, човековиот развој.

“Human development will remain a key feature of our development. We will therefore continue to allocate at least 20% of EU funding on health and education.

“This means, for example, that the EU will more than double its funding for вакцини и имунизација светот, од 10 милиони евра за 25 милиони евра годишно. Ние, исто така се зајакне нашата поддршка на глобално партнерство за образование, чија цел е да се постигне своите цели универзално образование со ставање на сите 57 милиони основно училишна возраст децата во училиште и обезбедување добар квалитет на учење. Комисијата планира двојно да го зголеми својот придонес во партнерство на надополнување конференција за 26 јуни.

“Likewise, to escape poverty, countries must be able to feed their people and secure their energy supply. That is why we see agriculture and energy as catalysts for sustainable growth. For the next seven years, земјоделство и безбедност на храната ќе биде централен сектор во повеќе од 30 африкански земји. Во денешниот свет на изобилство, навистина е неприфатливо да се види гладните деца, како што видов на пример во Сомалија и Џибути. Повеќе од 3 милијарди евра ќе бидат доделени за поддршка на одржливи земјоделски активности и околу 3.5 милијарди евра за борба против заостанувањето.

“Energy исто така, ќе биде важен фокусен сектор. Во рамките на иницијативата "Одржлива енергија за сите" ЕУ ќе одвои повеќе од 3 милијарди евра за енергија во следните 7 години, што пак ќе ги искористи инвестициите кои надминуваат 15 милијарди евра. Неодамна го објави лансирањето на енергетските проекти на 16 низ девет африкански земји во рамките на нашата нова програма за рурална електрификација. Овие акции ќе се претворат во проекти кои ќе донесат електрична енергија до повеќе од 2 милиони луѓе во руралните средини и ќе не приближат до нашата цел за поврзување на 500 милиони луѓе со 2030.

“So growth is an important factor in development. Yet we must not forget how fragile it can be without цврсти институции и владеење да го поддржат. Арапската пролет покажа дека постои вистинска жед за транспарентност, одговорност и почитување на човековите права. Ова е причината зошто 25 процентот од средствата што ги доделуваме ќе бидат насочени кон секторите поврзани со добро управување, вклучувајќи ја и поддршката за граѓанското општество.

“Beyond these three main principles under the Agenda for Change, I must add a word on our support for мир и безбедност. Сите ние имаме на ум страшно слики на насилство во Централноафриканската Република и Јужен Судан. ЕУ се игра критична улога во овие земји се растргнати од конфликти кои го уништи било кој придобивките кои беа постигнати во развој и да се поттикнат на милиони луѓе назад во екстремна сиромаштија.

“We have contributed more than 1.2 billion euro since 2004 to help finance Africa-led peace support operations, in Somalia, Sudan, Mali or CAR.

Пост-2015

„Дами и господа,

“The Africa-EU partnership not only deals with concrete projects and development aid. It is also about cooperating on global political issues – such as the post 2015 agenda.

“What is at stake is critical: it is about putting the world on track towards poverty eradication and sustainable development.

“The EU made its position clear last year. We believe that the post-2015 framework should have poverty eradication and sustainable development at its core, and include five main elements: basic living standards; inclusive and sustainable growth; sustainable management of natural resources; equity, equality and justice; and peace and security.

“When the African Union adopted its common position on the post-2015 framework last January, I was very pleased to see that it is extremely close to the EU position. During the last Africa-EU Summit, African and European leaders recognised that defining the post-2015 agenda provides – and I quote – a “unique opportunity to realise our common vision of a peaceful, just and equitable world that is free of poverty and respects the environment”.

“Both sides also committed to “work in partnership to support the definition and of an ambitious, inclusive and universal post-2015 development agenda that should reinforce the international community’s commitment to poverty eradication and sustainable development”.

“We must now turn these fine words into real action by engaging further in the moves to set up an ambitious agenda ahead of the intergovernmental negotiations in 2015.

Заклучок: Идните односи со Африка

„Дами и господа,

“The time has come for Africa and Europe to leave behind the traditional donor-recipient relationship and to develop a shared long-term vision for our relations in a globalised world.

“That’s why we’ve agreed to build a strong political relationship and cooperate closely in a broad range of priority areas – from peace and security to social and human development and economic and trade cooperation. Our relationship is founded on shared values, shared interests and shared strategic objectives. It strives to bring Africa and Europe closer together through stronger economic cooperation and more sustainable development, with both continents living side by side in peace, security, democracy, prosperity, solidarity and human dignity.

“Ours is a partnership of mutual interests. When terrorist activities spread in Africa or migration flows become unmanageable, they threaten Africa and Europe alike. Likewise, when Africa’s growth increases or inter-African trade expands, the opportunities for both Africa and Europe are evident.

“We may not agree on everything, but with a sense of common responsibility we can work together to find common solutions. That’s what a partnership of equals is all about. It’s a partnership to which we can and must aspire.”

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